The colony made a separate peace that respected its internal status quo. The Parliament of Bermuda avoided the Parliament of England's fate during The Protectorate , becoming one of the oldest continuous legislatures in the world.
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Virginia's population swelled with Cavaliers during and after the English Civil War. Figures for casualties during this period are unreliable, but some attempt has been made to provide rough estimates. In England, a conservative estimate is that roughly , people died from war-related disease during the three civil wars.
Historical records count 84, dead from the wars themselves. Counting in accidents and the two Bishops' wars, an estimate of , dead is achieved,  out of a total population of about five million.
Figures for Scotland are less reliable and should be treated with caution. Casualties include the deaths of prisoners-of-war in conditions that accelerated their deaths, with estimates of 10, prisoners not surviving or not returning home 8, captured during and immediately after the Battle of Worcester were deported to New England , Bermuda and the West Indies to work for landowners as indentured labourers .
There are no figures to calculate how many died from war-related diseases, but if the same ratio of disease to battle deaths from English figures is applied to the Scottish figures, a not unreasonable estimate of 60, people is achieved,  from a population of about one million. Figures for Ireland are described as "miracles of conjecture".
The Warrior Generals: Winning the British Civil Wars by Malcolm Wanklyn
Certainly the devastation inflicted on Ireland was massive, with the best estimate provided by Sir William Petty , the father of English demography. Petty estimates that , Protestants and , Catholics were killed through plague , war and famine , giving an estimated total of , dead,  out of a pre-war population of about one and a half million.
Many of those sold to landowners in New England eventually prospered, but many sold to landowners in the West Indies were worked to death. These estimates indicate that England suffered a 10 per cent loss of population, Scotland a loss of 6 per cent, while Ireland suffered a loss of 41 per cent of its population. Putting these numbers into the context of other catastrophes helps to understand the devastation to Ireland in particular.
The Great Hunger of — resulted in a loss of 16 per cent of the population, while during the Second World War the population of the Soviet Union fell by 16 per cent. Ordinary people took advantage of the dislocation of civil society in the s to gain personal advantages. The contemporary guild democracy movement won its greatest successes among London's transport workers, notably the Thames watermen.
Some communities improved their conditions of tenure on such estates.
The democratic element introduced into the watermen's company in , for example, survived with vicissitudes until The wars left England, Scotland, and Ireland among the few countries in Europe without a monarch. In the wake of victory, many of the ideals and many idealists became sidelined. The republican government of the Commonwealth of England ruled England and later all of Scotland and Ireland from to and from to Between the two periods, and due to in-fighting among various factions in Parliament, Oliver Cromwell ruled over the Protectorate as Lord Protector effectively a military dictator until his death in Charles returned from exile on 23 May On 29 May , the populace in London acclaimed him as king.
These events became known as the Restoration. Although the monarchy was restored, it was still only with the consent of Parliament. So the civil wars effectively set England and Scotland on course towards a parliamentary monarchy form of government. Thus the United Kingdom was spared the wave of revolutions that occurred in Europe in the s.
Specifically, future monarchs became wary of pushing Parliament too hard, and Parliament effectively chose the line of royal succession in with the Glorious Revolution and in the Act of Settlement. In the early decades of the 20th century the Whig school was the dominant theoretical view.
It explained the Civil War as resulting from centuries of struggle between Parliament notably the House of Commons and the Monarchy, with Parliament defending the traditional rights of Englishmen, while the Stuart monarchy continually attempted to expand its right to dictate law arbitrarily. The major Whig historian, S. Gardiner , [ full citation needed ] popularised the idea that the English Civil War was a "Puritan Revolution", which challenged the repressive Stuart Church and prepared the way for religious toleration.
So Puritanism was seen as the natural ally of a people preserving their traditional rights against arbitrary monarchical power. The Whig view was challenged and largely superseded by the Marxist school, which became popular in the s, and saw the English Civil War as a bourgeois revolution. According to Marxist historian Christopher Hill :.
The Civil War was a class war, in which the despotism of Charles I was defended by the reactionary forces of the established Church and conservative landlords, Parliament beat the King because it could appeal to the enthusiastic support of the trading and industrial classes in town and countryside, to the yeomen and progressive gentry, and to wider masses of the population whenever they were able by free discussion to understand what the struggle was really about.
In the s, revisionist historians challenged both the Whig and the Marxist theories,  notably in the anthology The Origins of the English Civil War Conrad Russell ed. From the s, a number of historians discarded and replaced the historical title "English Civil War" with the titles the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the "British Civil Wars", positing that the civil war in England cannot be understood in isolation from events in other parts of Britain and Ireland; King Charles I remains crucial, not just as King of England, but through his relationship with the peoples of his other realms.
For example, the wars began when King Charles I tried imposing an Anglican Prayer Book upon Scotland, and when this was met with resistance from the Covenanters , he needed an army to impose his will. However, this forced him to call an English Parliament to raise new taxes to pay for the army. The English Parliaments were not willing to grant Charles the revenue he needed to pay for the Scottish expeditionary army unless he addressed their grievances.
By the early s, Charles was left in a state of near-permanent crisis management, often unwilling to concede enough ground to any faction to neutralise the threat, and in some cases doing so would only to antagonise another faction. For example, Charles finally agreed upon terms with the Covenanters in August , but although this might have weakened the position of the English Parliament, the Irish Rebellion of broke out in October , largely negating the political advantage he had obtained by relieving himself of the cost of the Scottish invasion.
Thomas Hobbes gives a much earlier historical account of the English Civil War in his Behemoth , written in and published in He reports that the causes of the war were the doctrines of politics and conflicts that arose from science that disputed those political doctrines. It also served as a statement to explain why Charles I could not hold his place of power and maintain peace in his kingdom. Hobbes offered a unique contribution to historical interpretation of the civil war through his Behemoth by connecting the civil war to the motivations of intellectuals who Hobbes reports caused it by trying to spread certain ideas throughout the nation, largely for the sake of displaying their own wisdom and learning.
Some scholars suggest that Behemoth has not received due respect as an academic work, being comparatively overlooked and underrated in the shadow of Leviathan. While philosophical dialogues are common, historical ones are not. Other factors that hindered its success include Charles II's refusing its publication and Hobbes' chiefly interpretive approach to the historical narrative.
Much can be gleaned about Hobbes as a person from looking at the difficulties he faced while seeking an audience for Behemoth. The essay illuminates a flaw shared by most of Hobbes's political philosophy as well, which is his lack of ability or willingness to empathize with perspectives that largely differed from his own.
As his perspective was so much at odds with other views, Hobbes struggled to understand the thinking of most of his potential audience and people in general. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see English Civil War disambiguation. Civil war in England — Main article: Bishops' War. Main article: Long Parliament. Main article: First English Civil War. Main article: Second English Civil War. Main article: Third English Civil War. See also: Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. See also: Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
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English Civil War: An Overview
Further information: English overseas possessions in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Crucial themes. Troubles at Frankfurt. Notable individuals. Continuing movements. Congregational churches U. Retrieved 4 October Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 20 April London: Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Limited.
John Hamden The Patriot The Siege of King's Lynn Larks Press. Luminarium Encyclopedia. Retrieved 8 April Nalson, 29— BCW Project. A Life of John Hampden the Patriot Bohn, p. Martin's Press, p. Heath, p. English Civil War at Wikipedia's sister projects. Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Kingdom of England. Politics Law. English language English people list.
Elsewhere Troubles at Frankfurt. Continuing movements Congregational churches U. Waller was another who excelled leading corps and detachments but lacked the strategic judgement for higher command. Prince Rupert and Cromwell were the stars, although the latter was only able to demonstrate his true talents during the Second Civil War and at Dunbar and Worcester. Conclusions and analyses are those of a 21st-century armchair soldier and, often, insufficient attention is given to what generals on the spot actually knew about a situation.
The book would have benefited from some consideration of the qualities contemporaries expected of a competent general officer. The result is a decidedly old-fashioned military history, reminiscent of the days when the study of war rarely descended beneath politico- strategic considerations. The origin of this centralised parliamentary supervision of its generals is not investigated but it must have been based on the practice of the States General of the Dutch Republic with its field deputies. Overall, the standard of generalship was not high: if it is no longer correct to describe the Civil Wars as fought by amateurs, it is equally wrong to say that they were conducted by expert professionals.
Despite some stylistic infelicities — there is an unfortunate fondness for colloquialisms that will cause the book to date quickly — Wanklyn provides a useful, well-researched, general narrative of the higher direction of the Civil Wars. John Childs is emeritus professor of military history at the University of Leeds. May have remainder mark.