Humphries and I.
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Khosa and B. Pillay, U. Roberts and S. Rawls, J. Rhoodie, N. Van Vuuren ed. Institutional Influences. Associational Life. Party Identification. Political Participation. Economic Participation. Institutional Models. Modeling Attitudes to Reform. Modeling Demand for Democracy. Modeling the Supply of Democracy. Modeling Demand for a Market Economy. Modeling the supply of Economic Reform.
Dr. E. Gyimah-Boadi
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Demand Supply and Regime Consolidation Revisited. The Consolidation of African Political Regimes. The Correlates of Consolidation. Economic versus Political Legacies. Paths of Political Legacies. The Study of Africa. Theories of Social Change. Strategies of Development. A Items Constructs and Indices. B Sampling Method. C Imputation of Data.
Africas Hybrid Regimes. Cultural Values. Cultural Models. Vote Choice. In this manner, perhaps the reforms even could have been softened. If efficiency is measured by the government's ability to meet the needs of its people, they suggest, then "the first task of government is to make sure citizens' lives improve on a daily basis, because if citizens do not see improvement, their enthusiasm for supporting government policies wanes.
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There was overwhelming agreement among participants that poor governance has adversely affected the efficient use of economic and social resources for development in African countries. The misuse or diversion of assistance and domestic funds by corrupt officials, which was tolerated during the cold war to receive support in the international system, is being replaced by a new emphasis on good governance. In the past, said a number of participants, "aid appeared to be driven by certain political factors without a congruence of interests between givers and receivers.
Among some participants, the assumption is that such groups can act as watchdogs, serving as the best deliverers of assistance; a number of participants did not agree, arguing that newly democratic governments should receive and channel such aid. In any society, holding citizens responsible for their actions, in public service and the private sector, is significant to ensure some level of accountability.
With regard to public officials, participants pointed out that mechanisms must be devised to hold leaders responsible when they use public resources in ways that society considers unacceptable. To that end, they noted that any public accountability system should include periodic competition and a clear set of rules and expectations.
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Participants emphasized the notion that the principle of accountability, essential to democracy, requires exposing the truth, with stated and enforced consequences for violating the rules, without exception, even for those in power. The lack of accountability in Africa has led to the gross misuse of public resources. For example, single-party systems in Africa do not allow for much in the way of accountability.
The effect has been rampant corruption and the deterioration of socioeconomic conditions—an indication that people in Africa were governed without being able to control their governors. One participant argued: "Besides financial and economic accountability, there is also a need for electoral accountability, for the right to recall representatives if they do not deliver on their promises and don't govern well. International financial institutions and bilateral donors have addressed their expectations of both economic and financial accountability from African countries.
The economic objectives of public accountability sought by. This not only requires systems of financial accountability, but also the capacity and willingness to monitor the overall economic performance of the government. Another challenge discussed under the rubric of good governance was to achieve transparency in government transactions.
In most African countries, participants noted that it is difficult to find functioning establishments in which government accounts, external procurement procedures, and central bank operations are discussed objectively: "In examining the way the economy is managed and the structure of relationships between government and society, there is need for greater transparency. The state must be deprivatized [from domination by the few] and a public arena must be created where there would be room for argument and discussions based on what is good for the entire society.
Things should be argued in public terms so that everyone can participate on an equal basis. Several participants pointed out that government should not conceal information from its citizens.