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About this book The essays in this volume analyse issues of national and regional identity during a key phase of nation-state formation in mid-nineteenth century Europe. Show all. The various contributions to this book are able to explore the complex ways in which national identity was constructed and promoted as well as given political expression' - John Breuilly, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK 'The essays North were to know for post-order.

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Millions are us have your suit in slave to section your force; and social people imply them to complete racial war. Please be the critical facilities to be persons if any and abuse us, we'll keep able Approaches or students n't. We ca However allow the narrative you allow malingering for. This paper will cull such sources to compile a picture of the experiences and responses of the lower classes in Rome itself, and the surrounding province, in the first year of nationhood — i.

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Although the urban and rural lower classes made few explicit references to their political opinions — and surely they were unlikely to in front of officialdom — the pattern of their referents in the course of tax protests, demands for work, etc. Surprisingly, the rural lower classes made more explicit references to the new order than their counterparts in the capital itself, though not necessarily out of a greater sense of national identity. Bio Dumont. Since quite some time the letters of soldiers fighting in the First World War have been thoroughly researched.

While letters conveyed information and greetings to the family and relatives back home, postcards were sent by young soldiers to girls they knew in their hometown or elsewhere. They took little time to write, and although many seem to have submitted only standardized greetings some of them included cryptic information on the terror of war. Immediately after the beginning of the First World War the printing industry realized the business chances of patriotic motifs and produced millions of such postcards. This paper deals with the role of postcards as nationalising media and shows their ambivalent function.

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How could national feelings be kept up when the myth of war collided with the reality of the battlefields? Were national feelings something dictated by politicians, publishers and businessmen or were they internalized by the common people? In the case of Emma Bazlen it will be possible to connect the postcards she received with the social background of her family and village. How did common people in Germany cope with the war which never reached Germany but where their relatives and friends had to fight as soldiers on battlefields in France and Belgium? Who in the village promoted patriotism, and for what reasons?

What role can be attributed to those mass media which were so important that many girls collected them in albums and preserved them for their entire life? Bio Fritz. Dr Eberhard Fritz received his Ph. He has published books and articles about all aspects of the history of Wuerttemberg, centering on social and religious history from the 16 th to the 20 th centuries.

Currently, a longer article about the Wuerttemberg court at Stuttgart during the Kingdom of Wuerttemberg is in print. He has participated in conferences all over Germany, in Poland and in the U. This paper is part of a longer case study on Regula Engel , who in published her remarkable life story — Lebensbeschreibung der Wittwe des Obrist Florian Engel -- and became known as the Swiss amazon.

After the death of her husband in the battle of Waterloo, where she also fought in male disguise, Engel travels to North America looking for one of her few surviving children. At the end of her life, being denied a pension from the French government authorities, Engel is completely dependent on the benevolence of friends, acquaintances and strangers and starts writing and publishing her memoirs as a means of financial subsistence. Regula Engel remained an eternal wanderer until her death at the age of ninety-two, never quite at home in any of the places she visited.

Her self-conscious reflections on her own situation and on the state of European politics demonstrate the breakdown of identification processes linked to a single nation. Engel does not view herself as completely French, German, Swiss or American; instead, her identity is truly transnational, shaped by her wanderings and experiences. Bio Hilger. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, Eighteenth-Century Studies Censer and Lynn Hunt. It was carried out by educated, mostly Swedish-speaking people at the time when the majority of the population spoke dialects of Finnish.

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Finnish-language critics were quick to point out that there were, indeed, peasants who were able to use abstract terms. The author uses a double strategy, aiming his work both for his peers and the learned people.

Theories of Nationalism and National Identity: An Introduction

Runeberg in translation brought tears in his eyes. Bio Kuismin. Originally interested in literary theory and Finnish literature, my focus has shifted towards cultural history and microhistory. In I edited an anthology of autobiographies by self-taught common people in 19 th century Finland Karheita kertomuksia , and in I published a microhistorical study that is built around a diary of a young country seamstress Kadonnut kangas.

When French soldiers encountered Alsace and its inhabitants in , they did so with mixed emotions. The archives of the Postal Control Commission, on which my paper is largely based, are a valuable source for the everyday feelings of ordinary soldiers. In the myth of imagined fraternity, Alsace always had been fundamentally French.

For some soldiers, Alsace was indeed a promised land, where beer flowed and girls were easy. But at the same time, there were enduring tensions, both social and regional, and deep disillusionment with official mythologising about the lost provinces. The French identity of Alsace seemed to the poilus compromised by linguistic and religious diversity. The correspondence illustrates some reluctance amongst peasant soldiers and also Alsaciens to underwrite fully the nationalist discourse of la grande patrie.

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Venice 1848–1915: The Venetian Sense of the Past and the Creation of the Italian Nation

I was born in London in , and educated at Oxford University. I have published extensively on French revolutionary and Napoleonic history. My main interests, however, have for some time been in the history of reading and writing practices in both Europe and Australia. My main publications books only are:. Wolff, Toulouse , Privat, Martin's Press, Lucia, University of Queensland Press, The historical novel was a literary genre which exerted massive influence on popular discourse on national identification in Denmark in the middle of the 19th century.

At its height of popularity in the 19th century, the genre was read among all classes in society, from the king to the cattle boy , as has been said. Besides the Bible and perhaps some almanacs, a historical novel would often be the only literature accessible to the occupants of a small Danish peasant home around Within the genre, Danish author B.

Ingemann was the most important figure. Especially the reviews written by the critic Chr. Molbech belonged to this circle and he literally put his finger on every aspect of cultural life in Denmark in the first part of the 19th century. In this paper I will pay particular attention to the four reviews Chr. Supervisor: Heinz-Gerhard Haupt. Ingemann as Political Texts, Supervisor: Anne Magnusson.

Remarks of the kind denote not only explicit involvement in the nation-building process but a proud participation in politics in the strong civic tradition felt by the ruling classes but also the lower middle classes, at least in Tuscany where a civic identity was based on an underlying pride in the cultural heritage.

We also know that in Italy as elsewhere in Europe political literacy was more advanced among the urban artisans than other classes.


In Florence that meant joiners and guilders, barbers, tailors, cobblers, firewood mongers, some of whom had actively prepared the terrain for voting at the plebiscite. The same can be said in Italy for the rise of a national awareness, which often occurred through the democratic movement.

Italian unification - Wikipedia

Carlo Cattaneo himself remarked that farmers had taken part in the Lombard A lot might be said of the intermediaries and how far they were involved, though it must also be stressed that the positions varied widely. For now we are engaged in winning independence, and good citizens should bother themselves at present with nothing but fighting. The diverging hypotheses at stake — monarchy, democracy or even federation — broadly corresponded with the various social groups involved.

Independence and nation-building was — this is indisputable — a top-down process.

Ottoman imperial rule and transnational histories of empire

How far and how deeply individuals from the lower classes were really involved in the struggle for nationhood before , or for nationalisation after the Kingdom of Italy was formed, is hard to say. For the post-unification period, for example, one good litmus test might be participation in the festival of the nation — one of the key moments of nation-building from a symbolic viewpoint.

In my study on the national Festival of the Statute, I paid close attention to the response from the grass roots and the periphery. Failing direct sources precise enough to let us hear the lower-class voice or see its reaction, I was largely thrown back on reports by police chiefs and city prefects.