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On the night of May , a group of 26 officers, non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the Yugoslav Royal Army arrived from Bosnia in the hills above Ravna Gora. These men, led by Colonel Dragoljub M. In their view, Yugoslavia had been defeated as a result of the actions of politicians and the treason of the Croats.

During the months of May and June , they devoted themselves to the organization of their movement. Their strategy was cautious and attentiste : they preferred to gather their forces in the expectation of a potential landing by the Allies in the Balkans. They nevertheless conducted guerrilla actions against their Croatian or Muslim adversaries on the territory of the Independent State of Croatia, as well as against the communist partisans. After , their actions against the occupying forces were mainly limited to acts of sabotage railway tracks, bridges, etc. It did not resort to organizing concentration camps.


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The communist resistance movement launched an armed uprising in July in Montenegro and Serbia. During , Tito and his fighters crossed Bosnia from east to west.

Kevin Heller and Gerry Simpson

The execution of these civilians occurred in the presence of Eugen Dido Kvaternik , head of public order and security for the Independent State of Croatia. The bodies are thrown into the Golubija gorges, which are thirty meters deep. Several waves of popular transfer are projected. As for Catholic priests, they will be settled in Croatia in the place of the Orthodox priests expelled to Serbia. In the second wave, 25, Slovenes sent to Styria since are to be settled in Croatia between 10 July and 30 August The third wave anticipates the expulsion of 65, Slovenes from Lower Styria and 80, from Carinthia to Croatia, from 15 September to 31 October At the same time, 30, Serbs are to be transferred to Serbia.

The bulk of the prisoners are transferred to the camps of Jadovno the Velebit region and Slano on the island of Pag. The victims are peasants caught in an ambush in their fields. Out of people, only three are able to escape from the grave Hercegovina u NOB , Stripped, they are shot and, in some cases, have their throats cut. The bodies are then thrown into graves that had already been dug, as well as into the small River Klokot. This scenario is repeated several times in late July and during August. Around of them are shot on the spot and buried in communal graves near the station of Banski Grabovac.

They are imprisoned and suffer serious torture in the prison of Petrovo Selo. On 29 July, a second group of Serbs is arrested: of them are killed the same evening after having suffered tortured Vezmar, On the orders of Ljubomir Kvaternik, the Serbs of Bosanska Krupa and its immediate environs are arrested and killed in that town.

Competing Histories

The Serbs are killed by automatic weapons and also with knives. On 2 August, the prisoners are killed and slaughtered in their hundreds, women and children included. In October , the two camps contain , prisoners. For over 60 years attempts have been made to establish or estimate the number of victims in this concentration camp complex. The figures vary from a few thousand to , or even 1 million dead. According to the inventory, probably incomplete, of victims of the Second World War carried out in by the Yugoslav Federal Bureau of Statistic, it is possible to establish a list 72, victims 33, men, 19, women and 19, children , of whom 40, were Serbs, 14, Roma, 11, Jews, 3, Croats, 1, Muslims, and so on Smreka, Among these mass crimes, those committed at Kragujevac on 21 October occupy a special place on account of the number of victims and the modus operandi.

On 19 October , several hundred peasants are executed in the villages around Kagujevac. On 20 October, hundreds of men are arrested in the town itself. They are shot on the 21st between According to German sources, 2, are shot. Official communist historiography refers to 7, victims. These mass executions occur at a time when the insurrection against the occupation forces is spreading through western Serbia. Between 9 and 11 October , people are shot.

Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes [2 volumes]: An Encyclopedia

On 12 and 13 October, Jews and Roma are killed. According to the police authorities, 2, Serbs and Jews are killed in the course of these reprisals Koljanin, From October , new executions are organized targeting Jews and Roma.


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In total, the number of male Jewish victims over the age of fourteen is estimated at 5, The aim of the German authorities was to exterminate Jewish and Roma men and detain women and children in camps. Up to 15 December , 5, people, Jews and Roma, are interned in the camp called Judenlager Semlin Koljanin, Between 21 and 23 January, people are killed in Novi Sad. In the course of these days, hundreds of people are arrested and driven by lorry to the banks of the Danube, where they are thrown into the icy river. It mainly involved non-commissioned officers, since the main perpetrators were neither heard nor pursued Klajn, According to the indictment of the Military Tribunal, the number of civilian victims was as high as 3,, including minors.

However, according to the post-war Yugoslav authorities, and more particularly the Commission to Establish the Crimes of the Occupier and its Collaborators of the autonomous Province of Voivodina, the estimated number of victims was 4, March: In the first half of March, the decision is taken in the German security apparatus in Berlin to kill all the Jews still in Serbia.

To this end, two SS non-commissioned officers, Goetz and Meyer, are sent to Belgrade with a special lorry of the Saurer brand name, equipped to cause death by asphyxiation with carbon monoxide gas. Between 19 and 22 March, Jews are asphyxiated in the special lorry.

Once the method has been tried and tested, the operation continues with the Jews of the Zemun camp, numbering 5, detainees as of 31 March Koljanin, Between the beginning of April and 10 May , all of these people are killed. The person in charge of Jewish issues in the German Foreign Ministry, Fritz Rademacher, declares in a memorandum dated 29 May that the Jewish question is no longer pertinent in Serbia. In sum, the number of Jews killed in this camp is estimated at , Koljanin, The start of was marked by two consecutive German operations aimed at destroying the partisan army.

The latter succeeding in breaking out of its encirclement during two battles, on the Neretva in March and the Sutjeska in June. Severely shaken, but not broken, the army of the partisans re-crossed Bosnia from west to east, reaching the confines of Montenegro. It was intended to be a political forum representing the Yugoslavia engaged in the anti-fascist struggle.

A National Committee, a kind of provisional government headed by Tito, was set up. The principle of the federal organization of the future Yugoslavia was proclaimed.

Competing Histories: Soviet War Crimes in the Baltic States - Oxford Scholarship

In , the defeat of the Third Reich seemed assured and the partisans continued to consolidate their positions, extending their control over Macedonia. At the end of September , the Red Army reached the Yugoslav border on the Danube and linked up with partisan units. Belgrade was liberated on 20 October The Serbian and Croatian forces that had supported the puppet regimes and fought the communist partisans fled towards Slovenian and Austrian territory, followed by civilians. It was not until May that the western part of Yugoslavia was liberated. Yugoslavia was one of the European countries hardest hit by the world war.


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As early as spring , the Yugoslav federal authorities announced a figure of 1. Nevertheless, this figure was adopted in communist historiography and the discourse of the political authorities for several decades. It was from the mids that debates on the victims of the Second World War emerged in the public sphere. Basing themselves on the pre-war demographic data and projected developments between and , as well as the census, the two authors arrived at roughly proximate figures — respectively, 1,, killed demographic losses assessed at 1,, and 1,, killed demographic losses assessed at 1,, The number of victims of the anti-Muslin operations conducted by the forces of the Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland between January and February is estimated at 10, Tomasevich, The term is used to describe not only the massacre in Simele , but also the killing spree that took place in 63 Assyrian villages in the Dohuk and Mosul districts which led to the deaths of between 5, [] and 6, [] [] Assyrians.

The Simele massacre inspired Raphael Lemkin to create the concept of genocide. The concept of the "crime of barbarity" evolved into the idea of genocide, and it was based on the Simele massacre and the Armenian Genocide , and it later included the Holocaust. The Whitaker Report of the United Nations used the massacre of , to , Jews in more than 2, pogroms during the White Terror in Russia as an example of genocide. The estimates of the number of killed range between 30, and 60, Multiple documented instances of unnatural mass death occurred in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin.

These include Union-wide famines in the early s and early s and deportations of ethnic minorities. During the Soviet famine of —33 that affected Ukraine , Kazakhstan and some densely populated regions of Russia , the highest scale of death was in Ukraine. The famine was caused by the confiscation of the whole harvest in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, the Kuban a densely populated Russian region , and some other parts of the Soviet Union, leaving the peasants too little to feed themselves.

As a result, an estimated ten million died, including three to seven million in Ukraine, one million in the North Caucasus and one million elsewhere. In addition to the requisitioning of crops and livestock in Ukraine, all food was confiscated by Soviet authorities.

I. The “Tokyo” Trials

Any and all aid and food was prohibited from entering the Ukrainian republic. Ukraine's Yuschenko administration recognized the Holodomor as an act of genocide and pushed international governments to acknowledge this. Several scholars write that the killing, on the basis of nationality and politics, of more than , ethnic Poles in the Soviet Union from —38 was genocide. Under Stalin the NKVD's Polish operation soon arrested some ,, of whom , were shot and surviving family members deported to Kazakhstan. In practice abandoning its 'official socialist' ideology of the "fraternity of peoples", the Soviets in the Great Terror of — targeted "a national group as an enemy of the state.

The Polish ethnic character of the operation quickly prevailed in practice The event began on 23 February , when the entire population of Checheno-Ingushetia was summoned to local party buildings where they were told they were to be deported as punishment for their alleged collaboration with the Germans.